:, ,..


O3 Ag Science Systems

O3 Ag Science offers products for all facets of agriculture.

  • Ozone water treatment systems: for buildings, wells and livestock drinking water.

  • Ozone grow systems: for field irrigation systems, Green Houses, Hydroponics grow systems, Aquaponics, ETC.

  • Ozone disinfection systems: for storage and processing facilities, including beef, poultry, dairy, fish, grain, potato, beet, fruit and vegetable and more.

O3 Ag Science products will put profit back in agriculture.

Our proprietary ozone systems will;

  • Promote rapid, healthy, vigorous and bountiful plant growth.

  • Reduce the amount of water, fertilizer and pesticide needed for healthy plants.

  • Disinfect any building, including processing facilities, storage facilities, potato/beet barns, dairy facilities and more……

O3 Ag Science Grow Systems

Ozone water is the best thing that you can give to a plant.

O3 Science Inc. is a leader in ozone science and technology. Our proprietary ozone injection systems have reduced the price and complexity of ozone agricultural systems. O3 Science, Inc Agricultural Systems will promote fast growing, healthy, more abundant crops using less water, less fertilizer and less pesticide. Putting profit back in agriculture.

Not all ozone systems are equal. Our first systems used weak molecule ozone and delivered 5-12% higher yield with 5-8% higher nutrition content. Our new ozone technology is delivering 10-20% higher yield with 10-18% more nutrition and the fields require 10-30% less water. We use the most powerful form of ozone to achieve these results.

O3 Science, Inc. understands the science behind plant growth. Our systems condition your irrigation water, so it is perfect for optimum plant growth. Our systems turn organics and chemicals in the water into plant food and deliver them to the root zone with a large amount of dissolved oxygen.

Our proprietary ozone injection technology simplifies ozone injection. This simplicity greatly reduces the cost of adding ozone to your fields. Our system injects 5-micron ozone bubbles into any irrigation line. The small bubble size allows for maximum ozone contact with the water. Ozone injected into farm and hydroponic water systems will increase the dissolved oxygen content of the water to super saturation levels. High dissolved oxygen (DO) is the #1 indicator of healthy water for plants.

When you understand the science of ozone you will understand how on Ag-Zone Agricultural Systems will increase your crop income by saving money in reduced water, fertilizer and pesticide, and at the same time increasing crop yields.

  • Ozone water is anti-bacterial and anti-fungal. Ozone water has been proven to oxidize bacteria, mold and fungus on contact. Bacteria, mold and fungus, the most destructive pathogens of plants, are eliminated by ozone water. The powerful ozone oxidizes these pathogens into their basic elements. This oxidized material is readily absorbed by plants as plant food.

  • Ozone oxidizes salts, chemicals and contaminants in water. Ozone turns chemicals into inert elements and organics into nitrates and nitrites that become easily absorbed plant food. For nitrogen to be useful for plant health and growth, it must be oxidized into nitrates and nitrites. This can be performed by the plant; however, it requires energy from the plant. Plants save energy when ozone oxidizes the nitrogen, this saved energy is redirected toward rapid healthy growth.

  • Ozone chelates minerals in the water. Chelation fractures minerals into sub-micron sized minerals that are easily absorbed by plants for nutrition. Again, plants can chelate minerals, but it takes energy away from growth. Plants readily absorb chelated minerals and redirect energy saved to healthy rapid growth.

  • Ozone water is pH balanced. Ozone oxidizes organics and chemicals in irrigation water and returns the water to a pH of 7.2 – 7.6. This pH is perfect for maximum plant growth. Ozone neutralizes the pH of the water. Plants selectively use water that is not in the preferred pH range. When the plants reject some water because of pH issues, more water is required.

  • Ozone water provides a high level of dissolved oxygen to the root system. Roots require oxygen to be healthy and grow rapidly. The high DO level of ozonated water provides the root system with large amounts of oxygen that is needed for healthy, rapid growth.

  • Ozone water reduces the amount of water needed to grow crops. The combination of pH balanced water high in dissolved oxygen, with readily available nitrates, nitrites and chelated minerals dramatically reduces the amount of water needed to grow healthy abundant crops.

  • Ozone water is wetter water. O3 (Ozone) is 13 times more soluble than O2 in water. Water that has high DO levels is absorbed into the soil far more rapidly than untreated water. Ozone water breaks thru bound up soil because ozone reduces the hydrostatic tension of the water.

  • Ozone water destroys biofilm in pipes. Biofilm spreads bacteria and absorbs oxygen out of the water lowering the DO levels as water travels through the pipes. Ozone has been proven to destroy biofilm. Pipes free of biofilm deliver more DO to the plants and kill bacteria that effect plant health.

  • Ozone is a natural pesticide. Ozone destroys insect eggs and larva. Adult insects have a natural dislike for ozone and will vacate the area that is treated with ozone. Case Studies with proven results. Here are samples of some of the many O3 Science, Inc. projects.

  • A 120-acre alfalfa field with a 1300-1700 gallon per minute flow pivot irrigation system was able to increase its yield by 30-40% while reducing its water by 20-30% with no added fertilizer or pesticide in a drought year. Irrigation water had a pH of 13 at the well. The pH of the ozone irrigation water was 7.4. The ORP, amount of oxygen in the water, went from 230 at the well to 550 at the end of the pivot. The grow time was reduced from 6 weeks to 5 weeks. The farmer believes he will get a 5th crop this year. 4 crops are the norm.

  • A hydroponic grow container using ozone water and ozone gas has grown 8” sprouts with 2” root mass from seed in 6 days. The first crop grew so rapidly that it plugged up the machine, so the grow was shortened from 6 days to 5 days. Over 99% of the seeds germinated. Many seeds had ½” of root growth in 9 hours after being placed in the grow trays. The fodder was measured to be 28% more nutritious than previous grows and contained no mold or fungus.

  • A greenhouse grower in central Utah had to thin out his tomato, squash, cucumber, peppers and other plants so the plants would remain upright. The crop yield was larger than any previous grow. Greenhouse growers are getting 20-30% higher yields with the addition of O3 Ag ozone systems. Mold and fungus is also eliminated by the system.

  • A cannabis grower in Oregon has seen there plants almost double in size with the addition of ozone water to there grow strategy. The grower’s plants have historically been harvested at about 8’ of growth. After ozone was added, There plants were 14’ tall with 2 months left in the grow cycle.


Ozone Water Systems

SP Water Treatment System

The SP Water Treatment System injects powerful ozone into your culinary water line. Ozone oxidizes organics and chelates minerals in the water. The water is then filtered with a 5-micron carbon filter. The result is water that is soft, pH balanced and free of chemicals and organics. Soft and Pure (SP) water has many applications for good health and wellness in people and animals.

Drinking water. The purpose of drinking water is to hydrate the body. To properly hydrate the body, water must meet the bodies standards. Humans, plants and animals require pH balanced water that is 7.2-7.6 pH in range. Water that is outside that range is selectively rejected outside of that range. Ozone water is naturally pH balanced to 7.4. Bodies that are properly hydrated are healthier and perform better than poorly hydrated bodies. Our ozone trough systems provide fresh, healthy, pH balanced water to livestock.

Ozone Clean Pro Ag-Zone Agriculture Disinfection/Sanitation systems.

Ozone Clean Pro has developed ozone water and ozone gas enhanced disinfection systems that are added to your existing Sanitation Plan. Our systems utilize ozone’s powerful disinfection properties to eliminate pathogens. Ozone is the world’s safest and most powerful disinfectant. Our enhanced disinfection systems give you an added layer of protection against disease, recalls and spoilage.

SP-2 Water Disinfection System.

The SP-2 Water Treatment System treats water exactly like the SP Water Treatment System then reinjects ozone into the water stream to produce soft and pure water with active ozone. Active ozone water is up to 3,500 times stronger than bleach or chlorine without the harmful effects of chemical disinfectants. Ozone water will disinfect/sanitize anything that it touches. Water flow rates up to 30 gallons per minute can be treated for enhanced sanitation/ disinfection purposes.

Ozone Shock disinfection system.

Ozone shock systems deliver a very high amount of ozone gas to the interior of a building or room. Our proprietary shock systems produce 30,000-45,000 mg of ozone per hour that will effectively disinfect up to 2,500 square feet. The Shock Systems can only be operated when the building/room is vacant for the duration of the treatment. The high quantity of ozone gas moves with the air to disinfect all areas that are exposed to air. The shock treatment will disinfect all surfaces, top, bottom, inside and out, to completely disinfect the treatment area. After treatment the ozone breaks down to clean oxygen and the area has a fresh smell like after a thunderstorm.

Ozone Dairy Systems.

Our dairy systems combine SP-2 Water Treatment System and ozone shock disinfection systems.

  • Active ozone water disinfects cows, walls, floors, milking machines and tanks.

  • Ozone gas systems fill the dairy with ozone gas when it is unoccupied. Ozone gas reaches into and disinfects every nook and cranny for the highest level of enhanced disinfection possible.


Ozone Processing Systems.

Our processing systems offer enhanced disinfection for beef, pork, poultry, fish, fruit and vegetable and other processors. Again, a combination of water and air systems are used.

Ozone water disinfects walls, floors, animals, processed meat, saws, brushes, conveyors and other equipment.

Ozone gas disinfects buildings and rooms after standard sanitation plan is followed.

Ozone Storage Systems.

Our storage systems reduce spoilage by using ozone gas to kill bacteria, mold and fungus that spoil stored foods.

Ozone gas is injected into storage barns and silos. The gas destroys bacteria, mold and fungus, while at the same time killing insect larva and eggs. Adult insects have a natural affinity for ozone gas and will vacate the area. Storage facilities can have spoilage rates as high as 50%. Ozone Shock Treatments will dramatically lower the spoilage rate.


O3 Science, Inc. Agricultural Systems put profit back into farming and processing.

This ozone technology can condition irrigation water, so it is perfect for optimum plant growth.

  • Ozone oxidizes organics, salts and chemicals in water into inert elements. Plants easily absorb the oxidized material as plant food.

  • Ozone chelates minerals in water into sub-micron sized particles that are easily absorbed by plants as plant food.

  • Ozone injection into irrigation water delivers pH balanced, super saturated oxygen water to the root zone of plants. Super saturated oxygen water promotes rapid, bountiful, healthy, vigorous, pathogen free plant growth.

Perfect irrigation water removes many variables that effect plant growth. Plants given ozone conditioned water will amaze you with their rapid growth and great crop yields. When combined the increased yield, reduced time of grow cycles, reduced water, fertilizer and pesticide. An added benefit is that the alfalfa was inspected by a plant nutritionist found to be 10-20% more nutritious than previous grows.

O3 Science, Inc. enhanced disinfection systems will provide an added layer of protection against recalls, spoilage, rot, mold, and fungus. Our disinfection Systems will reduce spoilage. Many storage facilities lose 20-50% of their crops to rot while in storage. Cutting the spoilage will increase income.

Advantages of O3 Science Agricultural Systems.

  • Very low cost.

  • Very high return on investment.

  • Easy to install.

  • Proprietary injection system increases ozone contact with water.

  • Utilizes the most powerful form of ozone.

The net effect of our ozone systems installed on your farm is:

  • Healthier plants free of insects, mold and fungus

  • Faster growing plants, up to 5-10% faster crop cycles.

  • Higher crop yields, up to 10-20%.

  • Larger healthier root mass.

  • Reduced chemical cost.

  • Reduced water consumption

The net effect of Ozone disinfection added to your sanitation plan is:

  • Added protection against recalls.

  • Highest level of disinfection possible.

  • Greatly reduced spoilage of stored foods.

  • Insect, mold and fungus free grain silos.

Call today to understand how O3 Science, Inc. can improve your agriculture business.

Thank You!

O3 Science, Inc.


Phone Number: (435) 251-8881


 A paper By Kurt Becker

Understanding Dissolved Oxygen

By: Kurt Becker

Even the non-technical growers have an understanding and appreciation for the measurements used in greenhouse growing today. Monitoring and optimization of pH and Electrical Conductivity (EC) have become standard practice, improving plant health and quality throughout the industry. By measuring these two simple factors, most nutritional problems can be avoided. The measurement of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) is also proving to be just as critical to plant growth. As with the other two measurements, there are minimum levels required for a healthy plant. Also, by optimizing DO, as with pH and EC, we can see great improvements in plant growth and quality. However, far fewer growers are utilizing, or are even aware, of this measurement.

Many of the practices in botany already consider the effect that oxygen has on the root zone. In the field, we till the soil. Among other things, this adds air space to provide oxygen to the roots. In horticulture, growing media is selected with a consideration for porosity for the same reason. The benefits of oxygen to plant roots, and to the rhizosphere in general, is well established in the mind of the grower. However, most are unaware of the level of oxygen contained in their irrigation water and don’t realize that there are methods to improve this level.

Dissolved oxygen is simply the amount of oxygen (O2) dissolved in water. It’s one of the best indicators of the quality, and the life-supporting ability, of water. People need the right amount of oxygen in the atmosphere to survive. And, just as fish need the right amount of dissolved oxygen in the water to survive and thrive, so do plants. 
Measured in mg/l, as a percent of saturation (%) or in parts per million (ppm), dissolved oxygen levels are affected by the temperature and salinity of the water, and also by other chemical and/or biological demands (COD/BOD) of the water. Cold water can hold more dissolved oxygen than warm water (see Figure 1) and fresh water can hold more dissolved oxygen than salt water. The maximum amount of DO that the water can hold is called the saturation value. It’s possible, and very often desired—especially in a greenhouse—to exceed the natural saturation point of DO in water. This is called super-saturation. 

At levels around 5 mg/l of dissolved oxygen, irrigation water is typically considered marginally acceptable for plant health. Most greenhouse crops, however, will perform better with higher levels. Levels of 8 mg/l or higher are generally considered to be good for greenhouse production and much higher levels, as high as 30 mg/l or more, are achievable and can be beneficial. If the DO levels are below 4 mg/l, the water is hypoxic and becomes very detrimental, possibly fatal, to plants and animals. If there’s a severe lack of DO, below around 0.5 mg/l, the water is anoxic. No plants or animals can survive in anoxic conditions. The irrigation water in many greenhouses has surprisingly low levels—often in the dangerous hypoxic range. 

Unfortunately, without measurement and awareness of the dissolved oxygen in greenhouse irrigation water, problems caused by hypoxic water in plant growth often go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Happily, monitoring DO is fairly easy. Just as with pH and EC meters, there’s a wide range of devices available at varying quality, accuracy and ease-of-use to test the level of dissolved oxygen in water.

When measuring DO, it’s important to understand the oxygen demand in the irrigation system and in the roots. There are plenty of things that will use oxygen in this environment. This is the reason that you might test 8mg/l DO at a cistern or well head, but only 5mg/l at the plant. Organic material in the water, or biofilm in your pipes, will consume oxygen. For this reason, it’s important to test in multiple locations and look for ways to remove as much of the biological demand as possible.

However, the detrimental effects of low-dissolved oxygen levels shouldn’t be the only reason to measure. Increasing DO in irrigation water can not only prevent problems, but with super-saturated levels, it can increase quality and plant growth, reducing cropping time and overall health. High levels of dissolved oxygen promote healthy root growth. The root system requires oxygen for aerobic respiration, an essential process that releases the energy required for healthy root growth and a healthy plant. 

Research shows that higher dissolved oxygen levels in the root zone of most crops results in a higher root mass. A plant with more root mass grows healthier and faster. A plant’s roots are where it gets the majority of its inputs for growth, including water and nutrients. Healthy roots with a good supply of oxygen have better respiration and are able to selectively absorb more ions in solution, such as the vital mineral salts nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. When there’s less oxygen in the water than there is in the plant, this reduces the permeability of roots to water, therefore reducing (even reversing) the absorption of nutrients. 







A healthier plant is a more efficient plant 
DO isn’t just an additional nutrient one should pay more attention to because it makes a healthier plant;

there are direct economic impacts, as well. When used properly, it can reduce the amount of nutrients and micronutrients required, as well as the amount of costly chemicals, such as fungicides. Additionally, evidence suggests that plant growth increases with super-saturation levels of DO, reducing cropping times and increasing fruiting or flowering yields. 

Improving levels of dissolved oxygen can be done through various methods. Simple aeration or agitation can increase dissolved oxygen enough to prevent problems. Injecting air or, especially, pure oxygen can increase levels as well, but only as high as saturation levels. Paying attention to temperature can also help improve DO, as colder water can hold more oxygen. Additionally, water at atmospheric pressure will hold less oxygen than when under pressure. Think of a bottle of carbonated water:  while under pressure, the water holds more carbon dioxide than it can when the cap is removed and the pressure is released. Once the bottle is opened, the CO2 begins to gas-off from the water, effervescing. The same is true with oxygen. Adding oxygen to a pressurized system can increase the level of DO.

Ozonation is another method for increasing oxygen levels in solution. Like oxygen injection, injecting ozone gas will increase dissolved oxygen. However, ozone or O3 is almost 13 times more soluble in water than O2. This allows for much greater levels of oxygen to be dissolved into the water. As O3 is very unstable and reverts back to O2 quickly, it leaves super-saturated levels of dissolved oxygen in the water. As the system remains under pressure, the DO levels can be maintained at more than 300% of the saturation level of DO.

While adding dissolved oxygen, ozone has an additional benefit in that it oxidizes organic material and biofilm in the pipes, reducing the oxygen demand and helping to maintain higher levels of DO.
Putting it to the test

Trials were conducted at Metrolina Greenhouses in Huntersville, North Carolina. Utilizing a portable water-treatment unit consisting of filtration and ozonation, the benefits of water super-saturated with dissolved oxygen were tested against their standard water sources. Three greenhouses were tested side-by-side using identical benching and booms. One used their pond water, one used their well water and the third used their pond water treated with the trial system. Consistently, the plugs in the third greenhouse using the ozone treatment had higher germination rates, faster cropping times, better root growth and better leaf development. Measurement of their dissolved oxygen in the irrigation water used in the third house was 300% greater than in the other two houses (see Figure 2).

In a final summary of the trial and of their first year using their own, complete treatment system, Metrolina reported that they saw an average of two weeks shorter cropping time on most liners, with complete cropping time reductions up to four weeks. More robust root systems with less damage and more drought tolerance were noted, as well as the removal of all biofilm from filters and pipes, and an overall reduction in their shrink by 66% from their previous three-year average.

These results are extremely impressive and achievable by others with proper equipment. However, growers can improve the health of their water in the short term by simply paying attention to the dissolved oxygen in their water. At a minimum, monitoring DO in irrigation water can help prevent problems or suggest different courses of action as problems arise. 

In the long run, the ability to optimize oxygen levels could improve plant health quality, reduce crop times and eliminate shrink, just as the focus on other input optimization has in the past.

Kurt Becker is the Executive Vice President—Sales & Marketing at the Dramm Corporation in Manitowoc, Wisconsin.



Research Papers Related To “Agricultural Applications”

Volume 33 – 2011

Volume 31 – 2009

Volume 28 – 2006

Volume 27 – 2005

Volume 26 – 2004

Volume 24 – 2002

Volume 23 – 2001


Spraying Ozonated Water under Well-Ventilated Conditions Does Not Cause Any Visible Injury to Fruit-Vegetable Seedlings

Authors Kazuhiro Fujiwara, Yugo Hayashi, Jong-Seok Park
Published 2011
Journal Ozone: Science and Engineering
Location Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 179 – 182
DOI Number 10.1080/01919512.2011.548685


To determine whether horticultural plants are visibly injured by being sprayed with ozonated water (OW) for airborne-disease control, we sprayed OW with a dissolved ozone concentration (DOC) of 4.0 or 8.0 mg L-1 or distilled water (DW) on melon (Cucumis melo L. ‘Andes’), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum M. ‘Momotaro-York’), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus M. ‘Fujikou’), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ‘Sharp’), green pepper (Capsicum annuum L. ‘Kyounami’), and eggplant (Solanum melongena L. ‘Senryo-nigou’) seedlings under well-ventilated conditions. The OW and DW were sprayed on the seedlings at 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. on 3 successive days. No yellowing, chlorosis, necrosis, or malformation was observed for any of the seedlings during this period and also 1 day after the last OW spraying. These results indicate that intensive spraying of OW with a high DOC, for airborne-disease control, does not cause any visible injury to the fruit-vegetable seedlings used as long as the spraying is carried out under well-ventilated conditions.

Reprinted with Permission from Taylor & Francis and the International Ozone Association – PAG

Comparison of Foliar Spray Efficacy of Electrolytically Ozonated Water and Acidic Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water for Controlling Powdery Mildew Infection on Cucumber Leaves

Authors Kazuhiro Fujiwara, Jong-Seok Park, Takuya Fujii
Published 2009
Journal Ozone: Science and Engineering
Location Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 10 – 14
DOI Number 10.1080/01919510802587358


We investigated and compared the effects of foliar sprays of electrolytically ozonated water (OW) and acidic electrolyzed oxidizing water (AEOW) on severity of powdery mildew infection (PMI) and occurrence of visible physiological disorder on cucumber leaves. Foliar spray of OW contained severity of PMI to almost the same level as the initial value, without any visible physiological disorder. Although severity of PMI on AEOW-sprayed leaves was significantly lower than on OW-sprayed leaves, the leaves showed a visible physiological disorder after the first spray. These results indicate that OW is a viable option for controlling PMI on cucumber leaves at low initial severity levels, or for prevention of PMI, and that AEOW can be used for controlling PMI with special efforts taken against a visible physiological disorder.

Reprinted with Permission from Taylor & Francis and the International Ozone Association – PAG

Promotion of Adventitious Roots in Chrysanthemum Cuttings by Soaking in Ozonated Water

Authors Kazuhiro Fujiwara, Jong-Seok Park, Takeshi Isobe, Shinichi Kusakari
Published 2009
Journal Ozone: Science and Engineering
Location Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 15 – 20
DOI Number 10.1080/01919510802587143


To examine the effect of soaking in ozonated water (OW) on development of adventitious roots, basal ends of chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) were soaked in 1, 3 or 5 mg L-1 OW, in an indol-3-butyric acid (IBA) solution prepared from a commercial root promoting agent or in distilled water (DW). At 20 day after transplanting (DAT), a significant increase in adventitious root number (ARN) was observed in the IBA-treated cuttings but early root elongation was delayed. When soaked in the 5 mg L-1 OW, ARN and total root length (TRL) grown over 40 mm were increased with a decrease in soaking duration (from 50 to 5 min). Lateral root number (LRN) of the cuttings soaked in the 3 mg L-1 OW for 1 h showed four times higher than that of the DW treatment at 19 DAT. Optimal combination of dissolved ozone concentration and soaking duration can promote early root elongation and LRN of chrysanthemum cuttings. From a comprehensive standpoint, a high DOC of OW with a short soaking duration (3 mg L-1 x 1 h and 5 mg L-1 x 5 min) worked as well as IBA for adventitious rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings. These findings indicate that ozonated water can be an alternative to root promotion agents for adventitious rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings.

Reprinted with Permission from Taylor & Francis and the International Ozone Association – PAG

Nutrient Solution Prepared with Ozonated Water does not Damage Early Growth of Hydroponically Grown Tomatoes

Authors Kazuhiro Fujiwara, Jong-Seok Park, Takeshi Isobe, Keiko Ohashi-Kaneko, Mari Yoshii, Kenji Kurata
Published 2009
Journal Ozone: Science and Engineering
Location Volume 31 Issue 1 Pages 21 – 27
DOI Number 10.1080/01919510802587523


Ozonated water as a water source for nutrient solution was investigated in hydroponically grown tomatoes. Nutrient solution was prepared by diluting concentrated nutrient solutions with ozonated water with dissolved ozone (DO3) concentrations of 0 to 10 mg L-1. Manganese concentration in the nutrient solution decreased with increasing DO3 concentrations. Initial growth of tomato plants supplied with nutrient solution prepared with ozonated water with a DO3 concentration of 1.5 mg L-1 was greater than that with a DO3 concentration of 0 mg L-1. These results indicate that ozonated water can be used as a disinfectant for source water in hydroponics during the early growth stage of tomatoes.

Reprinted with Permission from Taylor & Francis and the International Ozone Association – PAG

Effects of Ozonated Water Application on the Population Density of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in Soil Columns

Authors Kazuhiro Fujiwara, Yugo Hayashi, Kenji Kurata, Masato Kadoya
Published 2006
Journal Ozone: Science and Engineering
Location Volume 28 Issue 2 Pages 125 – 127
DOI Number 10.1080/01919510600559435


The potential of ozonated water was investigated as an alternative to soil disinfectants in reducing the population densities of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in artificially infested quartz sand and Kuroboku soil columns. Significant reductions in the population density were observed with dissolved ozone concentrations (DOCs) of 6 and 12 mg L-1 in infested quartz sand but not in infested Kuroboku soil. The results indicate that repetitive application of ozonated water with higher DOCs should be required for reducing the population density of F. oxysporum in soils with high content of organic substances and large surface area.

Reprinted with Permission from Taylor & Francis and the International Ozone Association – PAG

Ozone for Plant Pathological Applications

Authors N. Mohan, Kirit Patel, K. Padmanabhan, S. Ananthi
Published 2005
Journal Ozone: Science and Engineering
Location Volume 27 Issue 6 Pages 499 – 502
DOI Number 10.1080/01919510500351875


The effect of ozone on Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, a bacterium causing leaf blight disease in Paddy (Oryza sativa), was studied in culture. Viability of this pathogen was lost by flushing ozone at a flow rate of 300 ml/min for 3 minutes in culture condition. The inhibitory effect was dependant on cell concentration and time. With a cell concentration of 0.008 OD at 540 nm, the inhibition of the bacterium was total and no growth was observed in nutrient agar plates even after 36 hrs. With higher concentrations of cells (0.08 OD and above) the bacterium survived, though there was a bacteriostatic effect initially. Conductivity of the cell suspension increased after ozone treatment owing to altered cell membrane permeability and subsequent release of cellular contents. As the bacterium is seed borne, washing the paddy seeds with ozonized water would help control the bacterial blight of rice, the most serious disease of rice in Asia.

Reprinted with Permission from Taylor & Francis and the International Ozone Association – PAG

Authors Kazuhiro Fujiwara, Takuya Fujii
Published 2004
Journal Ozone: Science and Engineering
Location Volume 26 Issue 5 Pages 511 – 516
DOI Number 10.1080/01919510490507892


Dissolved ozone concentration (DOC) of ozonated water (OW) sprayed from four different distances using three different droplet sizes (expressed in terms of Sauter mean diameter; small, medium, large) was measured at the spray target to obtain fundamental data for improving disease control efficacy when spraying OW onto plants. DOC in the OW at the spray target decreased with decreasing droplet size. DOC was also greatly reduced at the typical spray distances of 0.50 to 0.75 m to less than one-seventh of the initial DOC (2.2 mg/L-1) in the sprayer reservoir, and DOC one-third lower than the initial DOC was observed even at the shortest spray distance of 0.05 m for all three nozzle sizes used. Based on the results of these experiments, disease control efficacy by spraying OW can be improved by minimizing the spray distance and using a nozzle that produces a larger spray droplet size, within the range such that adhesion efficiency of OW to the leaf surface is not greatly reduced.

Reprinted with Permission from Taylor & Francis and the International Ozone Association – PAG

by minimizing the spray distance and using a nozzle that produces a larger spray droplet size, within the range such that adhesion efficiency of OW to the leaf surface is not greatly reduced.

Reprinted with Permission from Taylor & Francis and the International Ozone Association – PAG

Research Note: Inactivation Efficiency of Ozonated Water for Fusarium oxysporum Conidia Under Hydroponic Greenhouse Conditions

Authors Noriyuki Igura, Masatoshi Fujii, Mitsuya Shimoda, Isao Hayakawa
Published 2004
Journal Ozone: Science and Engineering
Location Volume 26 Issue 5 Pages 517 – 521
DOI Number 10.1080/01919510490507937


Ozonated water was used for inactivation of Fusarium oxysporum conidia in sterilized water and inorganic soil-less nutrient medium at different treatment temperatures. F. oxysporum conidia were effectively inactivated in both water and nutrient media and the inactivation curves were almost same at 15°C, 25°C and 30°C. Approximate 4-log orders of F. oxysporum conidia were killed when the ozonated water with initial ozone concentration of 1.0 ppm had been used. The surviving curves, however, were characterized by a tailing-off effect, and the effect was related to the residual ozone concentration in the ozone treated suspensions.

Reprinted with Permission from Taylor & Francis and the International Ozone Association – PAG

Effects of Spraying Ozonated Water on the Severity of Powdery Mildew Infection on Cucumber Leaves

Authors Kazuhiro Fujiwara, Takuya Fujii
Published 2002
Journal Ozone: Science and Engineering
Location Volume 24 Issue 6 Pages 463 – 469
DOI Number 10.1080/01919510208901635


Effects of spraying ozonated water on the severity of powdery mildew infection, visible disorder/injury occurrence, and net photosynthesis in cucumbers were investigated. The severity in the ozonated water treatment was contained to almost the same level throughout the 14-day period of the experiment, while the severity steadily increased in the non-treated control and distilled water treatment. Neither visible disorder/injury on the leaves nor a large difference in net photosynthesis between before and after spraying the ozonated water was observed. The results indicate that ozonated water can be at least a partial alternative to agricultural chemical fungicides for powdery mildew on cucumber leaves.

Reprinted with Permission from Taylor & Francis and the International Ozone Association – PAG

Impact of Ozonated Water on the Quality and Shelf-life of Fresh Citrus Fruit, Stone Fruit, and Table Grapes

Authors J. L. Smilanick, D. M. Margosan, F. Mlikota Gabler
Published 2002
Journal Ozone: Science and Engineering
Location Volume 24 Issue 5 Pages 343 – 356
DOI Number 10.1080/01919510208901625


Spores of fungi that cause postharvest decay of fresh fruit die rapidly in ozonated water. We determined the impact of sporocidal or higher O3 doses on fruit shelf-life and quality. Green mold and sour rot on citrus fruit, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii, respectively, were not reduced by 20 min immersion in 10 ppm O3. These fungi infect through wounds; their spores were placed in shallow wounds (l mm wide by 2 mm deep) 24 hr before treatment. On five peach varieties, the average natural incidence of brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola, was reduced from 10.9 to 5.4% by 1 min immersion in 1.5 ppm O3. A treatment of 15 min with 5 ppm O3 further reduced decay to 1.7%, but consistent control of brown rot was associated only with this severe treatment and it caused shallow pits on the fruit. Brown rot caused by spores placed in wounds before treatment was not controlled. Immersion for 1 or 5 min in 5 ppm O3 reduced natural aerobic bacteria populations by 1.1 and 1.6 log10 units, respectively, and yeast and filamentous fungal populations by 0.7 and 1.3 log10 units, respectively. Spores of Botrytis cinerea, cause of gray mold, were sprayed on table grape clusters, the clusters were dried, and then immersed for 1 to 6 min in 10 ppm O3. In two tests, immersion for 1 min in O3 reduced gray mold from 35% among untreated grapes to about 10%, while in two other tests the incidence was only reduced from 35 to 26%. Minor injury to the rachis of grape clusters occurred at high O3 rates. Immersion in ozonated water did not control postharvest decay of citrus fruit, injured peaches and nectarines at doses that reliably controlled decay, and on table grapes control was irregular and caused minor rachis injury at high rates.

Reprinted with Permission from Taylor & Francis and the International Ozone Association – PAG

Century 21 – Pregnant with Ozone

Authors Rip G. Rice Ph.D.
Published 2002
Journal Ozone: Science and Engineering
Location Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages 1 – 15
DOI Number 10.1080/01919510208901590


As we enter this new century, it is striking how the number of applications for ozone is growing. During ozone’s first century, the emphasis for using it involved primarily, potable water treatment, wastewater treatment, bottled water treatment, odor control and medical therapy. Of these, potable water and wastewater treatment now can be called the “classical” applications for ozone. But there are a great many more uses for this versatile chemical that might be termed “non-classical”, and these began emerging toward the end of the last century. Some of these so-called “non-classical” developing applications for ozone will be reviewed in this paper. As we enter the 21s1 century, applications for ozone in the various aspects of the agricultural and food processing industries are very active and most promising.

Reprinted with Permission from Taylor & Francis and the International Ozone Association – PAG


The Effects of Ozonated Irrigation Water on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties

Authors Logan Raub, Christopher Amrhein, Mark Matsumoto
Published 2001
Journal Ozone: Science and Engineering
Location Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 65 – 76
DOI Number 10.1080/01919510108961989


There are reports that ozone in irrigation water can improve crop vigor, reduce insect and disease, enhance water penetration, and reduce fertilizer needs. It has been noted that ozone treated field soils seem spongier and have less standing water. Here we report on a laboratory column study on the effects of ozonated irrigation water on hydraulic conductivity, soil hardness (aggregate strength), clay dispersion, soil swelling, and changes to the chemical composition of the leachate water. Additional batch studies were conducted to characterize the factors affecting the rate of ozone loss in soil/water suspensions and the results used in a mathematical model to predict ozone movement into a soil. We found that ozone increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity and decreased clay dispersion in a loamy soil, but not if the soil had an exchangeable sodium percentage >15%. In two other soils tested, the ozone effects were mixed or insignificant. In every soil tested, the drainage water from the ozone-treated columns had lower pH’s and higher electrolyte concentrations. This is attributed to organic matter oxidation and the weak acid properties of ozone. The rate of ozone degradation in soil water could be modeled using the total organic carbon content of the soil, the pH, and the soil/water ratio. Based on the rate of ozone loss in soil/water suspensions, the calculated depth of ozone penetration during the initial wetting of the soil was <2 mm, indicating that the reaction may be limited to the surface.

Reprinted with Permission from Taylor & Francis and the International Ozone Association – PAG